Four construct of utaut model

Exploring the UTAUT Model: An Overview of its Four Constructs

In today’s digitally advanced world, technology has become a central part of our lives. We are surrounded by smartphones, laptops, and other technological advancements. However, the level of acceptance of this technology is not the same for everyone. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the user acceptance of technology to guarantee the success of any technological innovation. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model is one of the most commonly used approaches for understanding user acceptance of technology.

Overview of the UTAUT Model

The UTAUT model was introduced by Venkatesh et al. in 2003 and is an expansion of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). It intends to clarify user conduct with regard to technology adoption by recognizing the four key constructs that influence user acceptance. These four constructs are Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), Social Influence (SI), and Facilitating Conditions (FC). According to the model, these constructs have a direct and positive effect on the users’ intention to use the technology, which in turn, affects the actual utilization of the technology.

Extension of the theory

  1. Lin and Anol proposed an expanded version of the UTAUT model, which considers the impact of online social support on the usage of network information technology. They conducted a survey of 317 undergraduate students in Taiwan using instant messaging to assess their online social support. They found that social influence plays a crucial role in determining online social support.
  2. Sykes et al. Introduced the model of acceptance with peer support (MAPS), a framework that combines previous research on individual adoption and social networks in organizations. The study involved 87 employees in a single organization and lasted for three months. The results showed that exploring social network constructs can help in comprehending the use of new information systems.
  3. Wang, Wu, and Wang added two constructs, perceived playfulness and self-management of learning, to the UTAUT model in their investigation of determinants of mobile learning acceptance among 370 individuals in Taiwan. They discovered that these constructs were significant determinants of behavioral intention to use mobile learning among all the participants.
  4. Hewitt et al. Expanded the UTAUT model to evaluate the acceptance of autonomous vehicles. They conducted two separate surveys of 57 and 187 individuals in the USA, which revealed that users were less accepting of high autonomy levels and displayed lower intention to use highly autonomous vehicles.
  5. Wang and Wang extended the UTAUT model in their research on 343 individuals in Taiwan to identify gender differences in mobile internet acceptance. They added three constructs – perceived playfulness, perceived value, and palm-sized computer self-efficacy – to UTAUT and selected behavioral intention as the dependent variable. They omitted the use of behavior, facilitating conditions, and experience since the devices were used voluntarily. They found that perceived value had a significant influence on adoption intention, while palm-sized computer self-efficacy played a crucial role in predicting mobile internet acceptance. However, perceived playfulness did not have a strong influence on behavioral intention, possibly due to network communication quality issues during the study.
  6. Cheng-Min Chao developed and tested a model to predict factors that influence students’ behavioral intentions toward using m-learning. The study employed an extended UTAUT model, which included perceived enjoyment, mobile self-efficacy, satisfaction, trust, and perceived risk moderators. The study collected data from 1562 respondents and used a research model based on multiple technology acceptance theories.
  7. Cimperman et al. Designed an extended UTAUT model to analyze the acceptance rate of home telehealth services among older adults. The extended UTAUT model includes six predictors and was empirically tested to be effective in predicting how specific behaviors influence the acceptance rate.

The Four Constructs of the UTAUT Model

1. Performance Expectancy (PE)

Performance Expectancy(PE) represents the level to which users trust that utilizing a particular technology will improve their performance and help them accomplish their objectives. It depends on the user’s discernment of how effective the technology is in meeting their requirements.

2. Effort Expectancy (EE)

Effort Expectancy(EE) represents the degree to which users feel that utilizing a particular technology will be simple and require minimal effort. It is based on the user’s perception of how simple or hard it is to use the technology.

3. Social influence (SI)

Social Influence(SI) symbolizes the level to which users perceive that important others in their social circle, such as family, friends, or colleagues, believe that they should use a specific technology. This construct depends on the user’s awareness of the opinions of their social network about the technology.

4. Facilitating Conditions (FC)

Facilitating Conditions(FC) symbolizes the degree to which users sense that their technical and organizational support systems are available to support the use of a specific technology. This construct is dependent on the user’s understanding of the resources available to assist the utilization of the technology.

Applications of the UTAUT Model

The UTAUT model has been employed in numerous fields, such as healthcare, education, e-commerce, and social media, to comprehend user acceptance and adoption of technologies. Understanding user acceptance of technology is significant for the success of technological innovations, and the UTAUT model gives a structure for researchers and professionals to attain this goal. However, it is essential to acknowledge its limitations and criticisms. Some of the issues with the model include its focus on intention rather than actual behavior, the potential impact of cultural and individual differences, and the lack of attention to emotional and psychological factors.


In conclusion, the UTAUT model is an advantageous tool for understanding user acceptance of technology. Its four key constructs offer a structure for recognizing the factors that influence user behavior toward technology adoption. Even though it has some restrictions, the UTAUT model remains a widely employed and respected model in the area of technology acceptance and adoption.


What is the UTAUT model?

The UTAUT theory looks at how people decide whether to use technology or not. It depends on how well it works, how easy it is to use, what other people think, and the situation they’re in.

What are the advantages of the UTAUT model?

This model is extremely valuable in explaining acceptance based on various factors, making it highly beneficial in supporting the advancement of technology.

What are the Four constructs of the UTAUT model?

Four Constructs of the UTAUT model:
1. Performance Expectancy(PE)
2. Effort Expectancy(EE)
3. Social Influence(SI)
4. Facilitating Conditions(FC)

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